I recently sat in on 12 weeks of the absolutely excellent subject "Witches and Witch-Hunting in European Societies" at Melbourne University. It is taught by Professor Charles Zika, author of the wonderful (but extremely expensive) book, "Excorsising Our Demons: Magic, Witchcraft and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe" (Brill. 2003). Dr. Jenny Spinks, who specialised in gender, and Mr. Liam Connell, who is an expert in the Salem Witch Trials assisted with the lectures. In this course one of my favourite things was finding out about the visual imagery of Witchcraft, something which I'm reasonably familiar with, but not expert on. One image in particular, which I'm sure people will be quite familiar with and which I *thought* I was also familiar with, is Hans Buldung Grien's "A group of female witches" (1510). The main part of the picture that interested me, in regards to claims from modern Witchcraft, was the forked stick that the witches are both sitting amongst and holding while flying. Now, in what is known as Traditional Witchcraft this forked stick purports to be "The Stang" a symbol of the Horned God. According to Professor Zika however, it is simply a cooking stick, it was used to take pots of food in and out of the fire. You can see a witch holding a pot with it while she flies through the air. And of course the women are cooking in this picture. In addition, Charles directed us to look at the way the witch with the pot on the ground is sitting in a triangle made of these cooking sticks, not a circle or anything we might be familiar with from modern practice. This artwork is about inverted "women's business": demonic cooking (and sex, note the sausages to the left - apparently, and I can't think why - sausages referred to the male organ of generation). So, this was just one instance - of which there were many during this series of lectures - of the historical approach to Witchcraft bringing up differences to the contemporary practitioner interpretation of historical Witchcraft. I thought that was interesting.